East Texas Seed Company
CLOVER SPECIES ARROWLEAF CLOVER is a high yielding and late maturing annual clover with growth into early June under good moisture conditions. Hard seed percentage is about 90% so it has good reseeding potential. Early planting enhances stand establishment. Soil pH is critical to growth and production of arrowleaf clover. Acid soils should be limed to at least pH 6.0 to 6.5 before establishment of this clover. Virus and root rot diseases are a major problem which can result in low forage production and loss of stand. The variety, Apache, is recommended because of tolerance to virus diseases. BALL CLOVER has excellent reseeding ability because it can produce seed under grazing that is over 60% hard seed. It has small ovate leaflets and small white to yellow-white flowers. Seed are very small with 1 million count per pound. Ball clover does best on level, fine sandy loam and clay loam soils that maintain good soil moisture. Seedling vigor is poor because of the small seed size. It should be mixed with annual ryegrass to reduce bloat problems. BERSEEM CLOVER is best adapted to loam and clay loam with a soil pH of 7 or higher. Because it tolerates poor drainage it does well in creek and river bottoms. It has good fall production in the Lower South where winters are mild. Berseem lacks cold tolerance and should not be planted north of I-20. Reseeding potential is poor because hard seed percentage is only about 10%. CRIMSON CLOVER is adapted to most soils if they are well drained. It has excellent seedling vigor and is one of the easiest clovers to establish. Crimson clover is the earliest maturing clovers, which is an advantage when overseeding a hay meadow. Reseeding potential is poor because of low hard seed production. Iron chlorosis is a problem on clay loam soils with a pH higher than 7.3. PERSIAN CLOVER is found volunteering on poorly drained clay and river bottom soils. It is a low growing clover that seldom gets taller than about 10 inches. Because Persian clover has a high bloat potential, it is advisable to plant annual ryegrass in areas where Persian clover volunteers to reduce the risk of losing cattle to bloat. RED CLOVER is a weak perennial (stands last 2 to 3 years in the mid-western US), but usually acts as an annual in the Lower South. It prefers loam and clay soils but they must be well drained. Spring growth begins later than the annual clovers but can extend into July if moisture is available. Because of its later growth it is better suited for hay production than the other clovers. ROSE CLOVER grows on all soil types, but they must be well drained and with a pH of 8 or less. It has proven to be more productive and persistent than the other clovers in north central Texas and central Oklahoma. Rose clover is a good reseeder because of high hard seed production, but seedling vigor is poor. The late maturing variety, Overton R18 rose clover, is recommended for the southeastern US. SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER is low growing and tolerates close grazing by sheep, goats, and deer. However, it has poor drought tolerance and must be grown under good moisture conditions on loam and clay soils or flat sandy loam soils. Subterranean clover produces seed in burrs close to the soil surface, but good reseeding is not dependable because of unpredictable hard seed production. Forage production is greater in the lower south where winters are mild. WHITE CLOVER is a perennial but acts as a reseeding annual in the Lower South. It is best adapted to level, fine sandy loam to clay soils that retain good soil moisture during the growing season. Intermediate type (medium sized leaves) white clovers are excellent reseeders because they flower from March through May, produce over 60% hard seed, and can produce seed under grazing. Ladino types (large sized leaves) are taller and more productive, but produce fewer flowers and therefore are not dependable reseeders, compared to intermediate white clovers. Seedling vigor is low because of small seed and white clover should be planted with annual ryegrass to reduce bloat potential. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Compiled by Gerald Evers and Ray Smith, Texas A&M System AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Overton. Research Center Technical Report No. 98-3. (Revised June 2006). Sponsored by the Oregon Clover Commission.